昨天 ，我和丈夫坐 车回 家。 但是，上车★后我发现3➊， 有个女人坐 在我们 的位子★上。➋ 丈夫叫我坐 在她的位子★上，➌ 没有 要这个女人让出位子★来。➍ 我有一点不高兴 ，➎ 丈夫怎么 这样★呢？ 后来我发现3她右脚3有问题，不方便3走路★。➏ 我一下子★明白3了丈夫为什么不请 她让出位子★。➐ 就这样★，丈夫一路站3着到家，➑ 都没有 和这个女人说过这个位子★是他的。
下车★后，我说：“给人让位子★是做好事★，➒ 但我们 从上车★到家这么★长时间，➓ 你在中途★还是3可以让她把位子★还给你，⓫ 让你坐着休息一下。” 这时★，丈夫看着我说： “她不方便3的是一生★， 我们 不方便3就这三个小时。” ⓬
生词 New Words：
发现 fāxiàn : find out; discover
位子 wèizi : place; seat.
这样 zhèyàng : this way; like this.
脚 jiǎo : foot
方便 fāngbiàn : convenient
走路 zǒulù : to walk.
明白 míngbai : know; understand
站 zhàn : stand
这么 zhème : so much.
还是 háishì : still; all the same
这时 zhèshí : at this time; at this moment.
一生 yīshēng : all one's life.
上车 shàngchē : to get on or into (a bus, train, car etc).
一下子 yīxiàzi : in a short while; all at once; all of a sudden.
下车 xiàchē : to get off or out of (a bus, train, car etc).
好事 hǎoshì : good action, deed, thing or work (also sarcastic, "a fine thing indeed"); charity; happy occasion.
中途 zhōngtú : midway.
语法要点 Grammar Points:
➊上车后我发现event/time period + (以)前/(以)后
. It expresses time before/after an event or time duration.
今年放暑假后 jīnnián fàng shǔjià hòu - after the summer vacation this year
两个星期前 liǎng gè xīngqí qián - two weeks before
➋有个女人坐在我们的位子上。在 (zài): (1) preposition: (located) at; (2) (to be) in; to exist; (3) in the middle of doing sth; (indicating an action in progress)
(1) If a sentence has other verb and "在 + location/time" before the verb or sometimes after the verb, then it is adverb phrase to modify verb.
看电视。 Wǒ zài jiālǐ kàn diànshì. - I am watching TV at home.
。 Wǒ bǎ shuǐguǒ fàng zài zhuōzi shàng. - I put fruits on the table.
(2) If a sentence has no other verb, then "在 + location" is verb phrase "to be at .../to exist".
哪儿？ Wǒ zài jiālǐ kàn diànshì. - I am watching TV at home.
，但是钱没了。 Qiánbāo zài, dànshì qián méiliǎo. - The wallet is here but the money is gone.
(3) Subject + 在 + Verb: 在 is adverb meaning an action is in the process.
。 Wǒ zài kāichē. - I am driving the car.
➌丈夫叫我坐在她的位子上，Causative verbs 让, 叫, 请, 使,
. Causative verbs cause or influence people to do things. In English, these are verbs like "make, let, have, get". Most common ones are: 让 (ràng), 叫 (jiào), 请 (qǐng), 使 (shǐ). The common structure is Subj. + Causative Verb + Someone + Predicate
我打电话给他 Bàba ràng wǒ dǎ diànhuà gěi tā. - My father asked me to call him.
老师怎么办？ Nǐ bù tīnghuà, nǐ jiào lǎoshī zěnmebàn? - You did not listen. What do you expect the teacher to do? 请
你来一下，好吗？ Qǐng nǐ lái yīxià, hǎo ma? - Can I ask you to come over?
很多学生不能去学校 Dàyǔ shǐ hěnduō xuéshēng bùnéng qù xuéxiào. - The heavy rain caused many students not to go to school.
➍没有要这个女人让出位子来。要 + action
. It means "to want; to ask for; will; going to (as future auxiliary)". When it follows by an action, it usually means "going to" as future auxiliary.
去北京旅游一个月 Wǒmen yào qù Běijīng lǚyóu yīgè yuè. - We are going to travel in Beijing for a month.
买一块手表给我 Jiějie yāomǎi yīkuài shǒubiǎo gěi wǒ. - My sister will buy a watch for me.
➎我有一点不高兴，一点/点 indefinite measure word
. It is used for non-personal things meaning "a little".
水 hē diǎn shuǐ - drink some water
饭 chī yīdiǎn fàn - have a little food
➏后来我发现她右脚有问题，不方便走路。Event1 + 后来 + Event2
. 后来(hòulái) is used to connect past events like "later, after" in English. Note 后来 can only be used with two events that have already occurred.
他说不去了 Tā shuō yào qù Běijīng, hòulái tā shuō bu qùle. - He said he would go to Beijing. Later he said he would not go.
➐我一下子明白了丈夫为什么不请她让出位子。一下子 (yīxiàzi): all at once
一下子 (yīxiàzi) is a very informal expression to describe how fast things happened. It usually touches upon sudden or severe changes in a very short amount of time. Although 一下子 (yīxiàzi) is already quite informal, in colloquial Chinese 一下 (yīxià) can also be used to express the same thing.
就热起来了。 Tiān yīxià zi jiù rè qǐláile. - It’s hot all at once.
长高了很多。 Sān gè yuè bùjiàn, tā yīxià zi zhǎng gāole hěnduō. - After three months, he suddenly grew a lot.
就明白了。 Tīng tā shuō wán, wǒ yīxià zi jiù míngbáile. - After listening to him, I understood it at once.
➑就这样，丈夫一路站着到家，Verb + ... + 着(zháo): verb complement
(1) Verb + 着: 着 is used as a resultative complement
, indicating the action has reached it's purpose or has had an outcome.
你的小猫了吗？ Nǐ zhǎozháo nǐ de xiǎo māole ma? - Have you found your cat?
(2) Verb + 得/不 + 着: 着 is used as a potential complement
, indicating one's one's ability is up (or not) to the task in question. This is similar to "(verb) able to reach" or “(verb) not able to reach."
吗？ Tiān zhème rè, nǐ shuìdezháo ma? - It is so hot. Can you sleep?
觉。 Tā jīngcháng wǎnshàng shuì bùzháo jiào. - He often can't sleep at night.
➒给人让位子是做好事，给 gěi: to, for; to hand over
. It literally means "to give" in Chinese. But it often used as preposition "to, for". Can also be a verb "to hand over".
她 Wǒ mǎile huā gěi tā. - I bought flowers for her.
➓但我们从上车到家这么长时间，从 + Time/Place: from Time/Place
开始上课 Wǒ cóng zǎoshang bā diǎn kāishǐ shàngkè. - I started to have class from 8 o'clock in the morning.
去上海 Tā cóng Běijīng qù Shànghǎi. - He went to Shanghai from Beijing.
来 Wǒ cóng Zhōngguó lái. - I came from China.
can; may; possible; able to; not bad; pretty good
⓫你在中途还是可以让她把位子还给你，可以 (kěyǐ): (1) can, able to, may (2) possible (3) not bad, pretty good
(1) ask for permission or request "may"
走了 Nǐ xiànzài kěyǐ zǒule. - You may leave now.
。 Wǒ kěyǐ hē chá ma? Kěyǐ. - Can I drink tea? Yes.
来学校吗？ Nǐ míngtiān kěyǐ lái xuéxiào ma? - Can you come to school tomorrow?
(3) adj "not bad, pretty good".
。 Zhè jiā fàndiàn de cài hái kěyǐ. - The dishes at this restaurant are OK.
啊。 Zhè shì nǐ zuò de cài? Nǐ zhēn kěyǐ a. - Did you cook this dish? You are really good!把 sentence
. The 把 (bǎ) sentence is a common structure in Chinese focusing on the result or influence of an action. It can feel a bit strange for English speakers at first.
Normal sentence is Subj + Verb phrase + Obj
. Converting to 把 sentence, it is Subj + 把 + Obj + Verb phrase
. This structure is used due to several reasons.
(1) The verb phrase may have a modifier such as result complement, which CANNOT insert anything in between grammatically.
杯子放在桌子上。 Tā bǎ bēizi fàng zài zhuōzi shàng. - He put the cup on the table.
他放杯子在桌子上 (在桌子上 has to be closely connected to verb 放)
(2) Speaker wants to emphasize the object.
你吃饺子吧。 Nǐ chī jiǎozi ba. - You eat the dumplings.
吧 (speaker emphasized food 饺子
) Nǐ bǎ jiǎozi chīle ba.
(3) Verb phrase may have two objects and become congested. Note Chinese like to use simple sentence. Put one object before makes sentence clean.
给我 => 他把花
送给我 Tā sòng huā gěi wǒ. - He sent me flowers.
It is often used as adverb meaning "at once; right away; only; just (emphasis); as early as; already; as soon as; then".
放假了 Hái yǒu èrshísān tiān, wǒmen xuéxiào jiù fàngjiàle. - There are only 23 days left before our school goes for vacation. 就
expresses "right away" here.
买了花给她 Liǎng gè xīngqí qián, wǒ jiù mǎile huā gěi tā. - As early as two weeks ago, I bought flowers to her. 就
here means "as early as".